Philatelic Study Group:
Hong Kong & Treaty Ports Forwarding Agents Markings
This list consolidates all the known records from Col. F.W. Webb, Peter Pugh, Fred Stubens, Kenneth Rowe
and the undersigned author. Since, at my knowledge, the most recent published list is from K. Rowe in
his “Postal History of the Forwarding Agents”, I have kept the same presentation by city and the same numbering system.
All the markings not recorded by K. Rowe (initially about 25%) have been introduced in alphabetical order with an
additional letter (i.e. 40A, 40B etc…). This may seem awkward, but it keeps from creating another set of numbers.
Different markings shapes or color of the same company are now recorded separately with the addition of a lower case letter (i.e. 4, 4a, 4b).
(use of the letter "L" is to give the possibility to include in the future additional markings in alphabetical order).
This list includes Hong Kong & its Treaty Ports of China and Japan, plus so-called Pseudo-Treaty Ports
such as Bangkok and Manila. It excludes Singapore that is documented on the excellent website
Most of the markings were used long before the introduction of adhesives. If a marking has been seen struck on
on a Hong Kong adhesive, it is deemed to having been used also as a Security Marking and
its security marking number is indicated in the "Security Marking Ref" column. 
To automatically qualify, a marking must contain one of the words "Forwarded by…", "Encaminada…" or "Transmis par .."
It may also display "Stamped by…" or "Postage Paid by..." terms used by some forwarding agents.
Many companies have forwarded mail, but without the above words, it is more difficult to detect if a marking indicates a forwarding intent
or just an identification function. Therefore "Agent name only" markings are only included in this list if their forwarding function is clear.
S inserted in the first column "Scan" indicates that this marking is illustrated in the website.
Names are displayed with fonts, case and colors as similar as the original marking. They are highlighter in bold letter. 
Conversely a name is not in bold letter if a marking is not illustrated and has not been seen by the author.
A number in the column "Note" indicates an embedded note regarding the history of the corresponding company.
* Gray color indicates an original note,  
* Pale yellow refers to another note located on one of the Security Marking lists.  
Philippe Orsetti
(Initial listing January 12, 2001 with 180 records)
(Updated as of January 1, 2012 with 195 records)
(Updated as of February, 2015 with 288 records, 70% being illustrated on 
Scan Name Shape Color Place Date Note Security Remarks References
Earliest Latest Marking Ref.
Treaty Ports in China
1 J. L. Anderson & Co. Rectangle red Amoy 1879  [1]
a J. L. Anderson & Co. Oval blue Amoy 1879   Group V-1
S 3 BOYD & Co. Oval red Amoy 1890 1902  [2] Group V-4
S 4 BROWN & Co. Oval red Amoy 1890 1897  [3] Christie's Lot 2245 / Sale 1295
a BROWN & Co. Oval blue Amoy 1890 1897  
S b BROWN & Co. Oval violet Amoy 1890 1897   Kelleher 9-2191
5 Gilmore Meredith Amoy 1848
6 F. D. SYME & Co.. Oval red Amoy 1845  [4]
a F. D. SYME & Co.. Rectangle red Amoy 1854 1855  
S b F. D. SYME & Co.. Rectangle black Amoy 1854 1855   Bull 316-6387, Interasia 20 & 24-1374
8 Syme Minot & Co. Amoy
S 8 L TAIT & Co. Oval red Amoy 1867  [5]
S La TAIT & Co-.. Oval violet Amoy 1895   Group V-14
S 0 L Gordon & Talbot Rectangle red Canton 1836 Interasia 44-6005
1 S. Hathaway Manuscript Canton 1837  [6]
2 Olyphant & Co. Oval red Canton 1858 1864  [7]
S a Olyphant & Co. circle black Canton 1858 1864   Canton ?
S 2 L G. P.   (?) Manuscript black Canton 1846 Initials only Dynasty 3
S 3 H. Partridge Kellogg Oval red Canton 1837 1839 used in Macao Christie's 1108
4 Reynvaan & Co. ? Canton 1850  [8]
S 5 RUSSELL & Co. Oval Canton  [9] by  black?
S a RUSSELL & Co. Doubleo oval red Canton 1830 1848   BY ... Frajola Macao  F. Mayer p.12, Interasia 24
S b Russell & Co. Rectangle black Canton 1843   "Overland via Marseilles" Cavendish 660-1185
S 7 RUSSELL STURGIS & Co. Oval red Canton 1837 1839   Philippines Philatelist
S 8 WETMORE & Co.. Oval red Canton 1836 1844  [10] ornamented Frajola Macao  F. Mayer , Interasia 24
a Wetmore & Co. Oval black Canton 1845   unormamented
S 1 WILSON CORNABÉ & Co. Oval black Chefoo 1870  [11] Frajola Philamercury
S a CORNABÉ & CO Oval violet Chefoo 1870 1891   Group V-6 Agent name only
S 2 L FERGUSSON & Co. Rectangle violet Chefoo 1901  [12] Gaertner 13, Interasia 20
S 3 L H. SIESTAS & Co. Banner violet Chefoo 1889 1894  [13] Gaertner 21-376 & 496
1 Dirom Gray & Co. Rectangle black China 1844 Christie's sale 1071,  Cherrystone
2 Rienkin Rawson & Co. Oval red China 1850
S 3 J. Lewis Shuck Oval black China 1837  [14]
S 4 TURNER & Co. Oval red China 1841 1842 established in Macao
S 0 L BATHGATE & Co. Oval violet Foochow 1915  [15] Gaertner 32
S 1 DODWELL CARLILL & Co. Fancy violet Foochow 1899  [16] Kelleher 9-2192, Stanley Gibbons 5872-568
S a DODWELL CARLILL & Co. Triple oval violet Foochow 1914 1918   Group V-9b John Bull #317 3393
S b DODWELL & Co., LTD. Unframed printed Foochow 1922   Interasia 22 & 32
c Dodwell Carlill & Co. Fancy violet Foochow 1899  
3 Gibb, Livingston & Co. Oval Foochow 1900  [17]
4 Jardine, Matheson & Co. Foochow  [18]
S 5 PAUL PETTICK & CO. LD Unframed violet Foochow 1896 1910  [19] Group V-11 3 lines Orsetti
S a PAUL PETTICK & Co. Ld Unframed violet Foochow 1891   Group V-11a 4 lines Orsetti
S 6 L TURNER & Co. Unframed printed Foochow 1898 Interasia 22 # 2710
S 1 L Melchers & Co. Triple oval violet Hankow 1904  [20] Agent name only Bull 318, Interasia 36
S 1 ARMSTRONG & LAWRENCE Oval black HK 1854 1855 Cavendish Ed. Lawrence
S 1 L H.A. ASGER & H. ESMAID Double oval bllack HK Agent name only, Iranian company Gaetner 25, Spink 2013
S 2 BELILIOS & CO Triple oval red HK 1892  [21] Hong Kong in centre
S a E. R. BELILIOS Triple oval red HK 1884   empty centre
S 2 L P.K. BENATRE Double oval red HK 1869 1870 Bull # 315, 1168
S 3 F. BLACKHEAD & Co.  Oval violet HK 1897 1902  [22] Group V-3a
S a F. BLACKHEAD & Co.  Oval violet HK 1901 1902   Group V-3
S 3 A BOSMAN & Co.. Oval red Shanghai 1863  [23] Agent name only Rumsey 27
S 4 BOURJAU HUBENER & Co/.. Double oval blue HK 1863 1866  [24] Agent name only Interasia 2 & 20, Cavendish 661-714
S a BOURJAU HUBENER & Co/.. Rectangle blue HK 1863 1866  
b Bourjau & Co Rectangle HK 1874   Bull # 315, 1074, to be scanned
5 F. S. Borrodaile & Co. Rectangle red HK 1858
S 6 Brandao & Co. Oval black HK 1903  [25]
7 S. E. Burrows & Sons Oval red HK 1873 Dynasty 11, Kelleher # 11 lot 714
8 Bush & Co. Oval blue HK 1844 1848  [26]
S a Bush & Co. Oval black HK 1844 1848   cavendish
S 9 Bush & Co. Rectangle black HK 1847 1848   "Postage Paid / By" Cavendish Ed Lawrence
S 10 Bush, Halstead & Co. Oval red HK 1840 1844 Christie's sale 1147 lot 2012, Cavendish 661-579, Bull 315-1135
S 11 CARTER & Co Oval red HK 1863 1866 ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006, Interasia 32, Cavendish 661-712
a CARTER & Co Oval blue HK 1863 1864 Interasia Part 8 lt 3499 to 3792  to be scanned
S 11 A A.H. CHINOY Double oval red HK  [27] Group V-7A
S 12 CHINA TRADERS INSURANCE C0. Triple oval violet HK 1899 1906  [28] Group V-7 Gaertner 25, Kelleher 9-2196
12 A SN Crosby Jr red HK 1856
13 Da Silva & Co. Oval black HK 1856 1866
S 13 A S.J. DAVID & Co. Oval violet HK 1900  [29] Group V - 8
14 Richard Deacon Unframed black HK 1878  [30]
S 15 Frederick Degenaer Unframed blue HK 1868 1873 Ishikawa. Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2188
a Frederick Degenaer Unframed green HK 1868 1872 Ishikawa to be scanned
b Frederick Degenaer Rectangle black HK 1868
15 A P.& P.  DERODE FRÉRES Unframed oval blue HK 1868 "TRANSMIS PAR"
S Aa P.& P.  DERODE FRÉRES Double oval blue HK 1868 Agent name only
S 15 B DESILVER & Co/.. Double oval red HK 1854 1856  [31] formaly  A.H. Fryer Robert Siegel Sale 853, Bennett 257-3298
S 15 C DODWELL CARLILL & Co Oval violet HK  [32] Group V-9
S 16 DRINKER & Co Oval red HK 1848 Cavendish 661-662, Bull 315-1122, Spink 2014 # 2348
a Drinker & Co. circle HK 1848
S 18 DRINKER HEYL & Co. Oval red HK 1848 Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Interasia 43
19 Dunn, Melbye & Co. Unframed red HK 1879  [33]
20 R. Duus Manuscript HK 1842  [34] Rawle Duus & Co
a R. Duus Oval red HK 1845   Rawle Duus & Co
21 A Adolf Eimboke Unframed HK 1873
S 22 FLETCHER & Co. Oval red HK 1854  [35] Lee C. Scamp
a Fletcher & Co. Manuscript HK 1854  
S 22 A A.H. FRYER & Co. Oval red HK 1854  [36] became DESILVER & Co/.. Arthur White Postal History  
S Aa A.H. FRYER & Co.  LATE Oval red HK 1854   DESILVER & Co/.. / HONGKONG / LATE / A.H. FRYER & Co. Rumsey sale 27
S 23 GIBB, LIVINGSTON & CO., LTD. Triple oval violet HK 1902 1922  [37] Group V-9A FORWARDED BY in centre Dynasty 9 1922 Frederic Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2200
S a GIBB, LIVINGSTON & Co. Circle violet Shanghai 1902   Group V-9Aa HONG KONG in centre
S 24 GONSALVES & Co. Oval violet HK 1887 Bull # 315 Lot 1183
25 L. J. Gutierez Oval red HK 1857
a L. J. Gutierez Oval black HK 1857
S b L. J. Gutierez Rectangle red HK 1854 Encaminada por S.A.S.D.S.M.R.
S 26 AUGUSTINE HEARD & Co. Double oval red HK 1863 1867  [38] Compustamp, Cavendish Ed. Lawrence, Interasia 12, 48. Gaertner 28-1823
S a Augustine Heard & Co. Oval red HK 1855   Agent name only Interasia 44-6017
S 26 A J.S. HOOK SON & Co Oval black HK Group V-9B
S 27 THOs. HUNT & Co. Oval red HK 1859 1867  [39] Siegel 858-3079, Bull -315-1155
S a THOs. HUNT & Co. Oval blue HK 1859 1867   Interasia 20
S 29 JARDINE, MATHESON & Co. Oval red HK 1848  [40] Cavendish 661-661
S a JARDINE, MATHESON & Co. Double oval violet HK 1858 1907   Group V-10 HONGKONG sans serif Dynasty 9 1907 Frederic Freilicher
S b JARDINE, MATHESON & Co. Double oval violet HK 1901 1903   Group V-10a HONG KONG with serif Lee C. Scamp
c Jardine, Matheson & Co. Oval HK 1909  
d Jardine, Matheson & Co. Oval HK 1925  
32 Johnson & Co. Oval HK 1865
S 32 A E.S. KADOORIE Triple oval HK 1909  [41] Group V-10B
S 33 BENJAMIN KELLY & POTTS Triple Oval blue HK 1904  [42] Group V-2
S 34 H. Kiar & Co. Oval black HK 1877 1878
S 35 LANDSTEIN & Co. Unframed blue HK 1872  [43] Greenish ? Siegel  sale 263 lot 277, Sun 4-1983
S a LANDSTEIN & Co. Unframed red HK 1869   Agent name only Bull # 315-1170
36 Lane, Crawford & Co. red HK 1869  [44] Lee C. Scamp
36 A Douglas Lapraik Triple oval red HK 1873  [45] Lee C. Scamp
Aa Douglas Lapraik & Co. Oval embossed HK 1916  
S Ab DOUGLAS LAPRAIK & Co. Triple oval violet HK 1916   Dynasty 9 1907 Frederic Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2198
S Ac DOUGLAS.LAPRAIK&Co-.. Double oval violet HK QV   Group V-10A
S Ad DOUGLAS.LAPRAIK&Co-.. Double oval black HK QV   Group V-10Aa
S Ae DOUGLAS.LAPRAIK&Co-.. Double oval blue HK QV   Group V-10Ab Bull # 279-1291
S 36 B J LEMBKE Rectangle black HK 1874 ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006
36 C Linstead & Davis Oval HK 1930  [46]
S 37 A. Lübuk & Co.. Oval red HK 1850
S 38 GEO. LYALL & Co.. Oval red HK 1850 1858  [47] Dynasty (Kelleher) 9-2180, 11-697, Christie's 1295 lot 2097
S 39 LYALL STILL & Co. Oval black HK 1845 1863 Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Rumsey 27, Bull 315-1152, Cavendish 722-694
S a LYALL STILL & Co. Oval black HK 1853 1859 Cavendish 2014, Kelleher 9-2183
S b L. S. & Co. Circle black HK 1856 Probably LYALL STILL & Co. Cavendish 661-551
39 A Mc Ewen Co Rect & Msc HK 1847
S 40 MELCHERS & Co. Double oval black HK 1868 1869  [48] Agent name only, flat oval Gaertner 18
S a MELCHERS & Co. Double oval blue HK 1886   Agent name only, rounded oval Frajola Macao F. Mayer p.70
S 40 A E & J MEYER Double oval red HK 1864  [49] Interasia 48-6300
S 40 B MEYERSCHAEFFER & Co/.. Oval blue HK 1854 1855 Siegel sale 249-293
40 C Morgan Lambert Oval HK 1868
S 41 OLYPHANT & Co. Rectangle black HK 1869 1877  [50] Dynasty  (Kelleher) 11, Christie's 1147-2013, Bull 315-1179
S a OLYPHANT & Co. Circle black HK 1847 1877   Agent name only
b OLYPHANT & Co. Circle black HK 1858   Agent name only Siegel 789-959
42 M. D. Parker Oval red HK 1863
S 43 PARKER & Co. Double oval blue HK 1862 1863 also firm's adhesive label Siegel sale 263 lot 265
S 45 Wm.. PUSTAU & Co.. Oval red HK 1858 1868  [51] HONGKONG one word Gaertner 26, Interasia 20
S a Wm.. PUSTAU & Co.. Oval red HK 1858 1868   HONG KONG two words Gaertner 26, 4-890, Interasia 6, 20, Kelleher 2-2467, Bennett 291-1004, Cavendish 661-711
S b Wm.. PUSTAU & Co.. Double oval red HK 1860 1869   Agent name only, flat oval Cavendish Ed. Lawrence, Dynasty Freilicher, Interasia 20
S c Wm.. PUSTAU & Co.. Double oval blue HK 1863 1869   Agent name only, flat oval ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006, Interasia 32
S d Wm.. PUSTAU & Co.. Double oval red HK 1869 1870   Agent name only, round oval Interasia 13, 20, 32, 43
S 46 RAWLE DRINKER & Co. Oval red HK 1849  [52] rounded oval Dynasty  (Kelleher) 11-695, Rumsey 27
S a RAWLE DRINKER & Co. Oval black HK 1849 1851   rounded oval Interasia 43
S b RAWLE DRINKER & Co. Oval red HK 1848 1849   flat oval Rumsey 27, Interasia 48
S 48 RAWLE, DUUS & Co. / VICTORIA, HK Oval red HK 1846 1849   Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2180 
S 48 A REYNVAAN CHABERT & Co. Double oval blue HK 1860 1862 Agent name only Interasia 13 & 20
S Aa REYNVAAN CHABERT & Co. Oval blue HK 1860 Agent name only Interasia 36
S Ab REYNVAAN BROTHERS & Co. Double oval red HK 1864 Agent name only Interasia 36
S 49 REISS & C0. Triple oval red HK 1909  [53] Group V-12a Block letters
S a REISS & CO. Triple oval violet HK 1900 1912   Group V-12 Block letters
S b Reiss & Co-.. Triple oval red HK 1900 1902   Group V-13 Script letters Interasia 36, 48
S 49 A J. Dos  Remedios Oval HK 1865 1866  [54] Lee C. Scamp, Far East Mail, p.306 to be scanned, Siegel "Ship Letters"
S 50 W. M. ROBINET & Co. Double oval red HK 1850 1856 Dynasty (Kelleher) 11, Cavendish 728-1248
S a W. M. ROBINET & Co. Double oval black HK 1854 Cavendish 666-722
S 51 RUSSELL & Co.. Oval blue HK 1861 1877  [55] Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Bull 315-1159, Cavendish 750-182, Kelleher 9-2185
S a RUSSELL & Co.. Oval black HK 1863 1865  
53 Samson Bell & Co. Oval black HK
S 54 David Sassoon Sons & Co. Oval black HK 1874  [56]
S 54 A W. Scott & Co. Oval red 1845  [57] Cavendish 661-362
S 55 Severs & Co. Oval red HK 1865 Cavendish 661-389
S 56 SIEMSSEN & Co. Circle black HK 1867 1872  [58] Agent name only ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006, Interasia 43, 48 Bull 322-4315
57 SMITH, ARCHER & Co. Oval red HK 1865 1870
S a SMITH, ARCHER & Co. Triple oval blue HK 1967 HONGKONG in center Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2187
S b SMITH, ARCHER & Co. Double oval blue HK 1865 1870 empty center Interasia 36 3462, Cavendish Ed. Lawrence
c SMITH, ARCHER & Co. Oval violet HK 1865 1870
S 58 Jas. Stephenson Rectangle red HK 1853 Jas. Stephenson/Commission Merchants/Hong Kong Spink 1188, Frajola "Greyhounds of the Sea"
S 59 UNION INSURANCE SOCIETY OF CANTON Oval violet HK 1906 1908  [59] Group V-15
S 60 VAUCHER FRÉRES Triple oval black HK 1861 1866 Agent name only Interasia 13
S a VAUCHER FRÉRES Triple oval blue HK 1859 1863 Agent name only Interasia 13, 43, 48, Cavendish 701-612
S b VAUCHER & Co. Triple oval blue HK 1862 1864 Agent name only Interasia 20
S c VAUCHER & Co. Triple oval black HK 1866 Agent name only Interasia 13, 43
S 61 Walker Borrodaile & Co/.. Double oval red HK 1860 1865 Dynasty 9 Freilicher, Interasia 43, Cavendish 772-693, Kelleher 9-2184
S a G. S. Borrodaile & Co Double rectangle red HK 1857 Cavendish 722-692
62 Wetmore, Cryder & Co. Oval red HK 1862 1863  [60] Bull 315-1154 green?
S a Wetmore, Cryder & Co. Oval blue HK 1861 1863   Spink 14011-2457
S 63 WETMORE, WILLIAMS & Co. Oval red HK 1858   Agent name only, used with Jos W. Alsop, New York Forwarder Dynasty 1-1182, Kelleher 1-1182 
S 63 A WIELER & Co. Oval blue 1881 1884  [61] Cavendish Ed. Lawrence
64 Williams & Co. Oval red HK 1863
S 0 L J.A. DURRANJ Oval black Macao 1845 Interasia 32 #3509
1 Innes Fletcher & Co. Manuscript Macao 1842  [62]
S 1 L Pedro de las Heras Double oval red Macao 1844 Frajola Macao  F. Mayer  (x 2) p.30-31, Philippines Philatelist
S 2 B. A. PEREIRA Double oval blue Macao 1873
S 2 L* REMINGTON & Co Rectangle black Macao 1838 1860  [63] * Struck in Bombay, India ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006, also Cavendish 661-660, Gaertner 22-1823
S 2 M Russell & Co Rectangle red Macao 1842  [64] Overland/ via/Falmouth
S 3 L Jose Vicente Jose Double oval blue Macao 1847 Frajola Macao  F. Mayer  p. 32
1 Astor House Hotel Co. Ltd. Oval blue Shanghai 1904  [65]
2 A. E. J. Abraham Oval violet Shanghai 1887
S 3 BIRLEY. WORTHINGTON & Co. Oval black Shanghai 1844 1864 Bull 315, 1161
S 4 BOURJAU & Co. Double oval blue Shanghai 1873  [66] Agent name only Interasia 48
S 4 A BOURJAU HUBENER & Co. Rectangle red Shanghai 1862  [67] Interasia 43
5 BUISSONET & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1863 1865  [68]
S a BUISSONET & Co. Oval blue Shanghai 1965   Agent name only Cavendish 661-715
S b BUISSONET & Co. Unframed blue Shanghai 1862 1864 Agent name only Rumsey 27, Interasia 48, World-Covers
6 Carter & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1863 1864 scan (Spink 01)
7 Dyce & Co. Oval red Shanghai
S 7 L FIERZ & BACHMANN Double oval blue Shanghai 1864  [69] Agent name only Interasia 13
S 7 M H. FOGG & Co. Double oval red Shanghai 1864 1867  [70] Lee C. Scamp (HKSC # 321), Christie's 1295-2274
S 8 FRAZAR & Co. Rectangle black Shanghai 1860 Agent name only Rumsey 27, Siegel 855-126
a Frazar & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1867 Kelleher 3-362
S 10 GIBB, LIVINGSTON & Co. Circle red Shanghai 1885 1986  [71] Group V-9Aa SHANGHAI in centre
S a GIBB, LIVINGSTON & Co. Circle violet Shanghai 1902   Group V-9Ab SHANGHAI in centre
10 A E. Gipperich Manuscript Shanghai 1874
11 Charles Gutschow & Co. Oval black Shanghai 1864
S 11 L HAVERS & CO Double oval blue Shanghai 1894 Stanley Gibbons 5872-12
12 Jardine Matheson & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1877 1879  [72]
13 Aug. H. Maertens Oval Shanghai 1878
S 14 MAITLAND & CO., Double oval violet Shanghai 1889 1902  [73] Lee C. Scamp (HKSC # 328), Dynasty 9 Fred Freilitcher 2195, Kelleher 9-2195
15 Olyphant & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1861 1869  [74] PhilaChina 43 2011,  Rumsey 26-1581
a Olyphant & Co. Rectangle black Shanghai 1877   Interasia 36 #3461
S 15 A ORIENTAL BANK CORPORATION Oval black Shanghai 1881  [75] Spink 11-2005
S 17 OVERBECK & Co. Oval red Shanghai Agent name only
S 18 Wm.. Pustau & Co. Oval red Shanghai 1874  [76] Interasia 48
S a Wm PUSTAU & Co. Double oval red Shanghai 1870   Agent name only Interasia 20
18 L C.P. Reynolds & Co Oval Shanghai 1861
19 Russell & Co. Oval blue Shanghai 1873  [77] Siegel auction 855, US PO in China Lots 25 & 30, Kelleher 14-1035
a Russell & Co. Oval black Shanghai 1873  
S b Russell Co. Manuscript black Shanghai   "Care of Russell Co Shanghai China" Siegel 882-2164
S 19 A SIEMSSEN & Co. Circle black Shanghai 1866  [78] Agent name only Gaertner 26
20 A B.A. Somekh & Co Oval violet Shanghai 1917 1919 Spink 15017-3212
21 Siblee Mathaei & Co. Oval Shanghai 1869
S 21 A S .N. TATA & Co.  Double oval violet Shanghai 1891  [79] Group V-13A
S 21 L VAUCHER FRÉRES Triple oval blue Shanghai 1859 1863 Agent name only Interasia 48, World-Covers
S 22 WISMER & Co. Rectangle black Shanghai 1899 1913 Siegel auction 855, US PO in China Lot 57
1 F. Blackhead Swatow 1875  [80]
S 1 L DIRCKS & Co Oval red Swatow 1863 "SWATAU" Interasia 48-6921
S La DIRCKS & Co Double oval black Swatow 1877
2 Edw. Herton Oval red Swatow 1875
S 2 L HIRSCHFELD & Co. Double oval red Swatow 1860 Bennett 291-1002
1 A. D. Startsoff Oval Tiensin 1890
S 1 F. Blackhead Oval red Whampoa 1850  [81] F or T Blackhead ?
2 Edw. Herton Whampoa 1875
S 3 Thos. Hunt Oval red Whampoa 1850 1867  [82] Dynasty 9 F. Freilicher, Kelleher 9-2182
Pseudo-Treaty Ports where Hong Kong adhesives were used
1 Borneo Company Limited Bangkok  [83]
S 0 H GERMANN & Co. Double oval violet Manila 1898 Agent name only
S Ha GERMANN & Co. Oval violet Manila 1902 Agent name only
S 0 L JENNY & Co. Triple Oval black Manila 1967 Agent name only Interasia 13
1 KER & Co. Oval red Manila 1867 1898  [84]
S a KER & Co. Oval black Manila 1867 1898   Group IV-10 "Stamped by" Cavendish Ed Lawrence
S b KER & Co. Oval violet Manila 1867 1898   "Stamped by"
S c KER & Co. Triple Oval violet Manila 1898   London 2010 Exhibit
S d KER & Co. Unframed red Manila 1872   Group IV-10a "Stamped by"
1 L Martin Dyce & Co. Oval Manila 1862 Philippines Philatelist
S 1 P Matia Menchacatorre y Ca Oval red Manila 1847 Agent name only Stanley Gibbons 5872-136
3 Molynday Wise & Co. Manila
4 E. De Otadin & Co. Manuscript Manila 1843
S 5 Peele Hubbell & Co. Oval red Manila 1834 1841  [85] Philippine Philatelic Journal XIV-I, Interasia 44-5129
a Peele Hubbell & Co. Oval black Manila 1834 1841   Spink 01 to be scanned, Philippine Philatelic Review, Siegel 1026-1773
S 5 A PETERS & Co.. Double oval black Manila 1852 Agent name only Gaertner 16-3449
S 6 RUSSELL & STURGIS Double oval red Manila 1834 1872  [86] Agent name only, "MANILA" long Rumsey 27 1860 - 30 1859 Manila
a RUSSELL & STURGIS Double oval red Manila 1840 1871   Agent name only, "MANILA" short
S b RUSSELL & STURGIS Double oval black Manila 1866   Agent name only, "MANILA" short Arthur White Postal History  
S c RUSSELL & STURGIS Oval violet Manila 1863 1971  
Treaty Ports & other ports in Japan
S 1 L L. KNIFFLER & Co. Double oval blue Hiogo 1871  [87] Agent name only Bennett 284-1610
1 CARST, LELS & Co. Oval black Kanagawa 1865  [88]
S a CARST, LELS & Co. Double oval blue Kanagawa 1863 1866   Agent name only Interasia 10, 13, 20, 24, 32, 48, ,  Cherrystone March 2002-1476, 1478, Kelleher 3-1153/6/9
S 1 L DE CONINGH, CARST & LELS Double oval blue Kanagawa 1863  [89] Agent name only Kelleher 1-1457
S 2 TEXTOR & Co. Double oval blue Kanagawa 1865  [90] Agent name only Kelleher 3-1141
S a TEXTOR & Co. Double oval black Kanagawa 1868   Agent name only Kelleher 3-1163
S 3 U. S. CONSUL Double oval & stars black Kanagawa 1866 Dynasty 2, Ref: Ishikawa (Forerunners), Siegel 2139, Kelleher 1-1499, 2-1667, Bennett 260-140
S 1 FRAZAR & Co. Triple oval violet Kobe 1894  [91] Gaertner 26, Bonhams 2003 (3 covers) lot 250, Stanley Gibbons 5872-128
S 1 C. E. BOEDDINGHAUS Double oval violet Nagazaki 1879 1891  [92] Gaertner 8, 25-2356
S a C. E. BOEDDINGHAUS Double oval blue Nagazaki 1895   Gaertner 25
S b C. E. BOEDDINGHAUS Double oval black Nagazaki 1891   Stanley Gibons 5872-127
1 L FRAZAR & Co. Oval Nagazaki 1868  [93] Siegel Sale 249-241
S 2 A HOLME RINGER & Co. Double oval blue Nagazaki 1881  [94] Horst Mueller Japhila
S 3 A J.P. HYVER Double oval blue Nagazaki 1858  [95] Agent name only ex Orsetti, Zurich Asia 2006
S 4 A L. KNIFFLER & Co. Triple oval blue Nagazaki 1866  [96] Agent name only, long "NAGAZAKI" Gaertner 25
S Aa L. KNIFFLER & Co. Double oval blue Nagazaki 1869   Agent name only, short "NAGAZAKI" Interasia 13
0 L  Ailmand, Brener & Co black Yokohama 1867 Kelleher 3-362
1 G. BOLMIDA Manuscript black Yokohama 1875
S a G. BOLMIDA Unframed violet Yokohama 1974 1879 Agent name only Spink 2013, Keheler 2-1664, 2-2422, 3-1177
1 E J. D. Carroll & Co. Yokohama 1879  [97] Kelleher 4-1174
S 1 G CARST, LELS & Co. Fancy blue Yokohama 1866 1867  [98] Agent name only Interasia 20,  Cherrystone March 2002-1482, keheller 3-1160/1
S 1 M G. K. DINSDALE Double oval violet Yokohama 1889  [99] Arthur White Postal History  
S 2 JAMES C. FRASER & Co. Double oval red Yokohama 1867 1868  [100] Ref: Ishikawa (Forerunners), Spink 2014 # 2462, Kelleher 2-2469, 2-2470 & 3-1162
S 2 A FRAZAR & Co. Triple Oval blue Yokohama 1888  [101]
2 L Grand Hotel Ltd. Oval Yokohama 1904
3 H. Grauert Oval black Yokohama 1870  [102] Frajola 1989 # 524
S 4 GUTSCHOW & Co. Oval blue Yokohama 1869 Kelleher 2-2464
S a GUTSCHOW & Co. Oval blue Yokohama 1869 Agent name only ex Orsetti
S 5 A L. KNIFFLER & Co. Double oval blue Yokohama 1866  [103] Agent name only Dynasty 2, Kelleher 1-1459 & 2-1667 
6 A CHARLES E. LEGGATT & Co Oval blue Yokohama 1872 Kelleher 3-1192 (black ?)
S Aa CHARLES E. LEGGATT & Co Oval black Yokohama 1872 Group V-10C Kelleher 3-1145, Cavendish 698-674 & 676, Christie's Lot 628 / Sale 4830, Dynasty 8-747
S 6 L VASCHALDE FILS & C0.. Unframed blue Yokohama 1873 Agent name only Spink 2013
S 7 WALSH, HALL & Co. Double oval blue Yokohama 1872 1874  [104] Bennett 284-1618
S a WALSH, HALL & Co. Double oval blue Yokohama 1888   Agent name only Bennett 284-1633, Interasia 10-1918
S 8 A ZIEGLER & Co. Double oval blue Yokohama 1868 1972  [105] Agent name only Cavendish Ed. Lawrence

J.L. Anderson was a tea Inspector for Boyd & Co. in  1872
See Security Markings Group I – 15A
Among the wholesale firms who were once
established here, but who in the far or near past
have retired, we may mention Bellamy & Co, J.
Foster & Co. Giles & Co, Dent & Co, H. D. Brown
& Co, Fearon Low & Co, Russell & Co, L,apraik
Cass & Co ; and the retail firms N. Moalle & Co,
Wilson & Nichols,
F. C. Brown & Co, and Dakin
Bros. With the closing out of the stock of F. C.
Brown & Co, and the changes made in the personnel
of the firm of Thomsen & Co, the retail (dry goods
groceries, etc.) business passed out of the hands
of foreigners, and is now carried on entirely by the

 "In and about Amoy : some historical and other facts connnected with one of the first open ports in China"
The origins of Boyd and Company go back to the 1850s when Thomas Deas Boyd managed the interests of F. D. Syme & Co, which was owned by Francis Darby Syme. Syme was involved in the Coolie Trade, the shipment of indentured Fuchien labourers to work in foreign colonies and countries. It was said that the coolie from Fuchien possessed the best temperament to work long hard hours without complaint. F. D. Syme & Co shipped thousands of coolies from Amoy to Australia, Bourbon (Reunion), British Guiana, California, Havana, Hawaii, Mauritius and Peru between the years of 1845 and 1852.

For a complete history of Boyd & Co, see:
See Security Markings Group I – 132
Gideon Nye sailed to China in 1831 to serve as agent for the New Bedford whaling firm Messrs. Hathaway, and was Vice-Consul at Canton for much of the time he lived there. He later formed the house of Nye, Parkin & Co. and prospered until the firm dissolved in 1856. This collection includes day books, correspondence, and statistics on goods exported from China to the United States. Two day books kept from Macao and Canton detail expenses and credits and dealings with American China trading firms Olyphant & Co. and Russell & Co.

Gideon Nye, Jr. papers
Mss:766 1858-1898 N994
5 volumes
See Security Markings Group I – 104B
Reynvaan and Co, the old Dutch company of Macau, have built a brick godown at 20 Queen’s Road and welcome your goods for dry storage.

Friend of China 24.11.42 edition
See Security Markings Group I – 116
See Security Markings Group II – 100
The founders of this firm were Messrs. James Wilson and W. A. Cornabe, both of whom were in business in Amoy. Early in 1864 they established themselves as general merchants in Chefoo under the style of Messrs. Wilson, Cornabe & Co. At first the business consisted of buying produce and shipping it to southern ports, but later on the firm became shipowners and shipping agents. Later still, after Mr. Eckford had been admitted to partnership, the exportation of straw-braid was undertaken very successfully. In 1887 Mr. Cornabe returned to England, and in 1902 Mr. Eckford was obliged to leave China on account of ill health. The business now consists of the export of straw-braid, silk, silk piece goods, and other local products, and the import of coal, flour, indigo, yarn, &c. The firm hold numerous first-class shipping and insurance agencies ; they are proprietors of the Hokee Lighter Company, and are interested in the Chefoo Water-boat Company. They also own one of the largest steam Tussah silk filatures in the neighbourhood. For years there has been a branch of the business at Weihaiwei, and in 1906 two new branches were opened at Tsingtau and Dalny, so that the firm is now entrenched at all the commercial strategic points in North China.

Source: p 769  Wright, Arnold, : Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China: Their History. People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., 1908.

Cornabé & Co.

Before founding the firm of Cornabé & Co., William Alexander Cornabé, James Wilson, and Andrew Millar Eckford left Boyd & Company in Amoy to form a partnership in 1864 at Chefoo under the name Wilson, Cornabé & Company. The partnership of Wilson & Cornabé was dissolved in 1876 and the new firm of Cornabé & Co. was formed in 1876.

Cornabé & Co. opened an office in Wei Hai Wei not long after 24 May 1898 when the British leased the town.  From December 1898 to 15 March 1899 the firm operated a Courier Post to Chefoo.

In 1899 the company name was changed again, this time to reflect the partnership with Andrew Millar Eckford, becoming Cornabé, Eckford and Company.  The head office was still in Chefoo, with branches in Port Arthur and Wei Hai Wei.  They represented a number of banks, steamship companies, sugar refineries and a large number of insurance companies.

By 1910 both founders were deceased, and the firm was in the hands of Vyvyan R. Eckford, Reginald H. Eckford and H.G. Smith as partners in Chefoo.  The business now consisted of the export of wheat straw-braid, silk, silk piece goods, brush bristles and other local products, and the import of coal, flour, indigo, yarn, etc.  They were owners of the Hokee Lighter Company and of one of the largest steam-operated mills for reeling Tussah silk in the area.  They had a part interest in the Chefoo Water-boat Company.  In Wei Hai Wei they jointly managed the Weihaiwei Light Co. By 1919 they were represented abroad in many important commercial centers.

By 1930, besides the head office in Chefoo, they had offices in Tsingtao (Kiaochau), Dalyn, Weihaiwei, Tientsin, Mukden and Harbin.  In 1934 they suffered a catastrophic loss when their comprador absconded with a large sum.  When the HKBC called in their loan the firm declared itself bankrupt.  The Chefoo firm of James McMullan & Co., Ltd. then took over the company.

Michel Houde

Article and illustrations in HKSC Journal # 331/16 Oct 2004
Thomas Tierney Fergusson founded the trading firm of Fergusson & Co in 1861 following the establishment of a treaty port at Chefoo [Yantai]. Until 1889 he traded alone but then went into partnership with John Pender Wake. According to Frances Wood, author of No dogs and not many Chinese: Treaty port life in China 1843-1943 , 'Chefoo was never much of a trading port, with only four foreign trading firms (three of them British) active in 1891, shipping beancake, vermicelli, peanuts, silks, hairnets, lace and fruits.' During his time in Chefoo Fergusson was a staunch supporter of the Catholic St Mary's Church and of the Catholic Mission there. Fergusson went on leave to England in 1889, dying there unexpectedly, on 22nd November 1890. The firm Fergusson & Co continued under new ownership for a number of years but Fergusson's property was managed through agents in China, first by his widow, Anna Fergusson and, after her death, in 1908 by his daughter Anne Marie Madeleine, wife of Admiral Sir Charles Henry Coke. During Lady Coke's life the property was sold off in various lots, the last being sold in 1940.

Archives Hub
Postcard editor:
H. Siestas & Co. Chefoo

Jehu Lewis and Henrietta Hall Shuck
1814 ~ 1863
1817 ~ 1844

During the 1835 meeting of the Baptist Triennial Convention, when an offering was being received for foreign missions,
Jehu Lewis Shuck put into the offering plate a slip of paper on which he had written, "I give myself." He married Henrietta Hall the same year and they were appointed for missionary service in China by the Baptist Convention. The Shucks arrived in Macao in 1836, where they lived and worked until the end of the Opium War (1839-1842), then moved to Hong Kong and a year later organized the first Baptist church there. While her husband was involved in evangelization and publishing, Henrietta opened a school for Chinese children and began taking Chinese orphans into her home, a practice she had begun in Macao. In Hong Kong the number grew to thirty-two children whom the Shucks fed, clothed, and nurtured. Besides being the first American female missionary to China, Henrietta Hall sent supporters at home a steady stream of letters, many of which were published, and her premature death at age 27 (after she gave birth to her fifth child) gained for her a place in Baptist mission lore---especially among Southern Baptists---second only to that of Lottie Moon.
A year after Henrietta's death in 1844, J. Lewis Shuck left on furlough, and while in the United States affiliated with the newly formed Southern Baptist Convention Foreign Mission Board (SBCFMB), married a second time, and then returned to China, accompanied by his new wife and several other newly appointed missionaries. He settled in Shanghai, the northernmost of the five new treaty ports, and with Matthew T. Yates organized the Baptist Mission in China. Generally, they worked harmoniously together, but there arose problems compounded by the death of Shuck's wife, Eliza, in 1851, which left him with six children, three in China and three in the United States. In November 1852, still grieving, Shuck left China for the last time. He had begun three churches, built four chapels and a school, baptized at least forty Chinese converts, and written and published thirteen works in Chinese languages. After arriving in the United States in 1853, he resigned from the SBCFMB to accept appointment by the Southern Baptist Convention Domestic Board as a missionary to the Chinese in California, where, in 1855, he organized in San Francisco a Chinese-speaking Baptist church, the first in the United States. He retired to Barnwell, South Carolina, in 1861 and died shortly thereafter at the age of 49.

By Alan Neely
Henry Winters Luce Emeritus Professor of Ecumenics and Mission, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Mr. J. C. Oswald, the chief partner in the firms of Bathgate & Co. and Fairhurst & Co., was born at Croydon in 1857,' and was educated at Heidelberg. He has been engaged in the tea trade all his life, for at the age of sixteen he joined a firm of importers in London, and, after remaining with them for thirteen years, came to Foochow, where he has since been engaged in superintending the export of tea.

Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China/ Foochow
See Security Markings Group I – 41
See Security Markings Group I – 54
See Security Markings Group I – 76
The oldest and largest store-keepers at Foochow are Messrs. Paul Pettick & Co. Established since 1888 they enjoy an excellent reputation amongst both the European and native population. Of recent years they have disposed of their retail business to the Foochow Trading Company, and have concerned themselves solely with the wholesale import and export trade. They import goods from England, America, France, and Germany, and export native produce, such as camphor, feathers, lacquered wares, bamboos, curios, &c. The manager speaks various dialects, and the firm are constantly adding to their agencies. They are property owners, house-boat owners, &c., and are always in a position to provide tourists and travelers with guides, boats, and other similar requisites.

Source: p  838 Wright, Arnold, : Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China: Their History. People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., 1908. 
See Security Markings Group I – 89
Belilios, Emanuel Raphael (summer only) (1837-1905). He arrived in Hong Kong in 1862, was a director of HSBC in 1868 and Chairman in 1876.
·       Belilios & Co., merchants, Lyndhurst Terrace.
·       Committee: Hongkong Public School, St. Paul’s College.
·       Justice of the Peace.
·       Director: Hongkong, Canton & Macao Steam-Boat Co. Ltd, 7 Queens Ave

Emanuel Raphael Belilios
Birthdate: November 14, 1837
Birthplace: Kolkata, W Bengal, India
Death: Died November 11, 1905 in London, Greater London, United Kingdom
Place of Burial: Golders Green Jewish Cemetery, Barnet, Greater London, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:
Son of Raphael Emanuel Belilios and Salha Belilios
Husband of Sema Belilios
Partner of LEE Wai Yin
Father of Maria FELICIE Choa; Hannah Judah; Raphael "Billy" Emanuel Belilios and David Belilios
Brother of Regina Sassoon; Gracia Gubbay; Isaac Raphael Belilios; Aaron Raphael Belilios, Sr.; Dinah Belilios and 2 others
Occupation: Chairman, Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
See Security Markings Group I – 13
Sir Robert Ho Tung Bosman, KBE (22 December 1862 – 26 April 1956), better known as Sir Robert Hotung, was an influential Hong Kong businessman and philanthropist in British Hong Kong

He was a Eurasian, born to a man of Dutch ancestry named Charles Henri Maurice Bosman (1839–1892)[2] and Madame Sze, a Han Chinese woman of Bao'an (present-day Shenzhen) heritage, on D'Aguilar Street.[3] His father was a merchant who had his own company, Bosman and Co., was part owner of the Hong Kong Hotel which opened in 1868, and a director of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company. By 1869, Charles Bosman was also the Dutch Consul, running an own marine insurance business whose important clients included the British owned trading conglomerate Jardine, Matheson & Co.[4] He later left for England, where he became naturalised in 1888.[5] In Cantonese, Bosman was pronounced Bo-se-man, transliterated into Cantonese became Ho Sze Man. When Robert Ho Tung Bosman travelled, he carried a certificate from the Governor of Hong Kong stating that his father was Dutch.

There is information on this firm and I have sourced the following from a research article belonging to the Hong Kong University, titled "The German Speaking Community in Hong Kong 1846 - 1918" written by Carl T. Smith. I think the article was written in the mid-1980s and  Carl Smith had made use of information sourced from the Hong Kong Public Records Office.This is what he had to say about the company:
Adolph Bourjau and Carl Albert Hubener were authorized to sign for L.E. Lebert and Oxford and Co. at Canton in 1858, but by the next year they were in business in Hong Kong under their own name ( Friends of China 18 March 1858, 31 May 1859). They were mentioned as emigrant agents in 1866 (Daily Press 1 November 1866). Mr. Bourjau continued as a senior partner until his death on 14 February 1873 ( Daily Press 5 April 1873).
Arthur Booth was a partner in 1862/3 and Oscar Booth from 1866 to 1869. Earnest Behre was the managing partner in Shanghai in the 1860s. Hermann Emil Hubener was admitted a partner in 1868. In 1861 Behre, Emil Hubener and A. Booth were assistants in the firm. Frederick Clause, another assistant, subsequently became a partner but left the firm in 1871 (Daily Press 2 January 1872), Gustav Adolph Wieler and his brother Oscar were assistants in 1866. Gustav became a partner in 1873. After the closure of the Bourjau, Huberer & Co, the two brothers formed the firm of Wieler and Co. It subsequently merged with Sander & Co. to become Sander, Wieler and Co."
Frank Drake
According to the Traders of Hong Kong: Some Foreign Merchants Houses, 1841 – 1899, Solomon Bard 1993,   Brandao & Co. was a Portuguese Merchants located 34 Peel Street and was in business between 1863 and 1905.

Philippe   November 2011
George Louis Haskell, for his part, was employed in two American trading companies established in Hong Kong. The first of those was the Williams, Anthon, and Co. ship-brokerage company “regarded as one of the most respectable in Hong Kong and whose members are each held in high regard.” The second trading company for which George Louis Haskell worked was called Bush & Co.

Christian Ramage - Hong Kong - 16 octobre 2014
According to the Traders of Hong Kong: Some Foreign Merchants Houses, 1841 – 1899, Solomon Bard 1993,   A.H. Chinoy was an Indian Merchants, (listed as a Commission Agent), located 26 Graham Street and was in business between 1884 and 1920.

Philippe   November 2011
According to the “Straits Times Weekly Issue” of the 21 September 1892, the 26th ordinary Board Meeting of the China traders' Insurance Company Limited was held that day.
See Security Markings Group I – 35
See Security Markings Group I – 37
Robert P. De Silver (1849 to 1856)

Robert P. De Silver was appointed U.S. consul for the Port of Macao on February 7, 1849. He was charged with looking after American interests in the city, which included any naval operations that should be carried out in the vicinity.' Before De Silver began his career as consul in Macao, he was a wealthy Philadelphian stationer and bookseller and author of several books on Philadelphia."

Even though De Silver held an official appointment of the U.S. government, the Macao Senate denied him exequatur rights because, as they put it, they could not permit any nation to exercise judicial' authority in the city. Macao Governor Joao Ferreira do Amaral (r. 1846-1849) expressed surprise that the exequatur rights had been denied and informed De Silver that he would forward the request to the Portuguese government.' The petition seems to have been successful because nine months later, Consul De Silver was granted full exequatur rights by Queen Maria H (r. 1826-1853) of Portugal. This marked the formal beginning of U.S. consular services in Macao.

One of the ways U.S. consuls in Macao supported their position was to collect consular fees from American vessels arriving at and departing. from the port. They sent reports of their activities to the secretary of state every three to six months. They also reported deaths of American citizens in Macao, such as sailor John Smith, who died in 1851 while serving aboard the Portuguese vessel Sophia on a voyage from Manila to Macao.'° De Silver arranged for his effects to be sold at auction, but stated that because he had no information of the friends or relations of John Smith" the money would be forwarded to Washington to distribute to the family." American exchanges with Macao at this time were not consistent or extensive, which is reflected in De Silver reporting no American vessels arriving from July 1 to December 31, 1853.

De Silver and his wife Emily Bob regularly visited Canton and Hong Kong from 1853 to 1854 for various social gatherings." After four years of service in Macao, Robert De Silver started a business in Hong Kong in 1853 with A. H. Fryer & Co.14 In 1854 De Silver left his post in Macao, without permission from superiors, and went to Hong Kong.

Samuel Burge Rawle was appointed acting vice consul in Macao after De Silver left." Rawle tried his best to help Robert De Silver obtain trade infnrmatinn at Macao, but found it difficult to gain access to commercial data. De Silver officially resigned from his consular post in Macao on November 5, 1855.

Americans and Macao: Trade, Smuggling, and Diplomacy
Paul A. Van Dyke - 2012

See Security Markings Group II - 30
See Security Markings Group I - 42A
Nicolay Duus, merchant, was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1846 to 1850. He was the founder and name partner of the mercantile firm, Rawle. Duus & Co., in C 1846, and the founder of the mercantile firm. N. Duus & Co., in 1850. Queen's Road C West was listed as his address in 1850.

Nicholas, Duus was a mariner and merchant who came to Hong Kong in 1837. after haring spent five years in Calcutta. presumably working also as a merchant. Duus ran a trading firm and store, N. Duus & Co., at 18 Queen's Road retailing foods, wines.

:n 1845 Duus partnered with American merchant Samuel Burge Rawle. to form a new trading firm - Rawle., Duus & Co., but moved to Shanghai a year later where he c opened a ship brokerage firm – Duus & Co.

Duus stayed in Shanghai until 1851. whereupon he returned to Hong Kong and after dissolving the partnship with Rawl., he established his own trading firm - Nicholas Duus & Co.

In 1846, he was appointed the Danish Consul for Shanghai.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)

Angus Flectcher, merchant, was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1843 to 1845. He was the founder and proprietor of the mercantile firm, Flectcher & Co. He was a Justice of the Peace between 1843 and 1846.

He was one of the first 44 Justices of Peace ever to be appointed in Hong Kong. Their appoinmients were announced by Henry Pottinger on the fifth day after he had sworn in as the first Colonial Governor. The date was June 30 1843.

Duncan Fletcher. merchant. was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1846 to 1850. He was a partner in the mercantile firm. Fletcher & Co.. between 1846 and 1850. He was a Justice of the Peace (non-official ) in 1850.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)
A.H. Fryer, master mariner, later merchant, was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1846 to 1850. He was a partner in the mercantile firm, Humphreys & Co., in 1846. He later found his own firm, A.H. Fryer & Co.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)

See Security Markings Group I – 54
See Security Markings Group I – 5
Thomas Hunt & Co. records
Mss:761 1863-1869 H943
26 volumes, 1 carton
Collection Guide
Thomas Hunt & Co. was a Canton-based commission merchant with business connections to many of the large American firms trading in China, including Augustine Heard & Co. Thomas Hunt & Co. papers include accounts current, bills, account stock and deliveries, invoice books, day books, sales, and letters sent, illustrating the brisk level of business conducted by even the smaller merchants.

Harvard Historical Collection
See Security Markings Group I – 76
See Security Markings Group I – 79C
Elly {Kadoorie} left for Hong Kong - aged 15 - arriving there on 20th May 1880. After several years with the Sassoons (E D Sassoon & Co) mainly in the Northern Treaty ports, he borrowed $100 from Ellis and set up the broking firm of Benjamin, Kelly & Potts in Hong Kong.

Source: The Scribe, Issue 75, antomn 2002
See Security Markings Group I – 87
See Security Markings Group I – 86
See Security Markings Group I – 42
See Forwarding Agent Shanghai 14
George Lyall, merchant, was listed as a resident of Hong Kong in 1850. Ha was the founder of mercantile firm, George Lyall & Co.. In 1950. He was a Justice of the Peace (non-official in 1850. Queen.s Road West was listed as his adress in 1850

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)
See Security Markings Group I – 89
See Security Markings Group I – 90
See Security Markings Group I – 104B
William Pustau. merchant. Was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1846 to 1850. He was the founder of the mercantile firm. Pustau & Co. Wellington Street was listed as his address in 0846: and Queen's Road in 1850.

William H. Pustau was listed in 1846 as the head of William Pustau & Co.  or with its business address situated on Wellington Street (moved to Queen's Road in 1860). It was the Hong Kong affiliate of a company with the same name (sometimes with slightly different names such as Wm. Pustau & Co. or W. Pustau & Co. or Pustau & Co. ) founded in Canton (Guangzhou) on January 1. 1843 by an Altonaer. Carl Wilhelm Engelbrecht von Pustau (1820-1879). The Pustau firm in Canton was the first Germany trading house to have been established in China. An office (or branch) in Shanghai was added some time between 1843 and 0846. and it was once housed at No..2a on the Bund.

The Hong Kong Pustau W. one of the sixty founding members of the Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce (1861- ). It was one of the few corporate members that were not engaged in the opium trade at that time. If it wasn't opium. was it then coolie trade? Like many other European companies in Hong Kong. Pustau did jump on the bandwagon of carrling on the businesses of emigration agents specialized in acquiring Chinese immigrants to work abroad. It was in fact charged by Governor Arthur Kennedy himself with complicity in the Macau coolie trade. The company was quick in response to clear its name. but at the end received no apologies from Kennedy. The head of Pustau also sat on the HSBC Board of Directors in the 1880s and 09 cos. The details I am still looking to find. So far I don't have much on William Pustau as a person, except that he was appointed Consul foz Bremen in 1850 and for Hanover in 1865.

These men were listed Aas employees of Pustau & Co. some time between 1850s and 1880s, most of them sound German: William Ahrenbeck: Gustav Ludwig Broderson, L.S. Lutkens: Julius Menke, Hermann Louis Christian Otte. George von Polanon Petel. P. Pickenpack. A. Pustau. Kaufmann Wilhelm Pustau. G. Raynall. Paul Reimann. Alexander Ludwig Reuter. F. Schirlye. The names of non-German employees I have found are: Frederick William. Lawrence. Polycarpo Antonio Rozario (Probably Portuguese), the Chinese compradcre Mok A-Kune and the ill-fated George Mather Neill: a young man from Edinburgh who was Med in a nasty carriage accident in November 1867 in Hong Kong. He was twenty five.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)
Samuel B. Rawle, merchant , was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1846 to 1850. He was the founder and name partner of the mercantile firm, Rawle, Duus & Co. in 1846 and Rawle, Drinker & Co. in 1850.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong, The First 10 Years.
(1841 - 1850)

See Security Markings Group I – 113
See Security Markings Group I – 113C
See Security Markings Group I – 116
See Security Markings Group I – 36
William Scott, merchant, was listed as a resident of Hong Kong from 1848 to 1850. He was the founder and proprietor of the mercantile firm W Scott & Co. He was a Justice of the Peace (non-Official in 1850.

Bibliographical  Dictionary of Residents of Hong Kong,
See Security Markings Group I – 124
See Security Markings Group I – 134
See Security Markings Group II – 100
Fritz Adolph Friccius Grobien (German), Ordinance No.6 of 2888, naturalized on February 22, 1888.

Fritz Adolph Friccius Grobien (b. March, 1842, Ellerau Bolstem - d. Apri116, 1917, Hamburg, Germany) was a partner of Sander & Co. a German firm in Hong Kong carrying on the business of trading and ship's agency. Sander & Co. was founded in 1864 by a F. Sander in Hong Kong; thefirm was renamed Sander, Wieler & Co. after a merger in 1898 with
Wieler & Co The firm was confiscated by the Hong Kong government during the Great War.

Grobien took HSBC to court in 1873, the damage was S21,000 he lost allegedly due to the Bank's mishandling the deposit of a check.
Waldemar Schmidt, Fletcher & Co.

Fletcher & Co., formely Innes, Fletcher & Co. , a partnership beteen James Inne and Mr. Fletcher, opium trader, J. Innes (1787-1841), nickna,d "Srorm Petrel of Canton" and 7th Chieftain of the Inneses of Dunkintry, Scotland, came to China in 1825 and started as a free trader in opium before the partnership with Fletcher.
Remington & Co. marking is found on a "Waghorn" letter from China and on mail from Macao. This has led to believe that it was originated in Maao and was thus recorded by Rowe.

However mails between India and UK, without any connection to South East Asia prove that this marking was applied in Bombay, India. However we keep the original listing with the addition of this foot-note.

Philippe Orsetti

See Security Markings Group I – 116
The Astor House Hotel (礼查饭店), known as the Pujiang Hotel (浦江饭店) in Chinese since 1959, has been described as once "one of the famous hotels of the world". Established in 1846 as Richards' Hotel and Restaurant (礼查饭店) on The Bund in Shanghai, it has been at 15 Huangpu Lu, Shanghai, near the confluence of the Huangpu River and the Suzhou Creek in the Hongkou District, near the northern end of the Waibaidu (Garden) Bridge, since 1858.


See Hong Kong Forwarding # 4
See Hong Kong Forwarding # 4
Eugene Buissonet was a French mercant of Shanghai head of Buissonet & Cie.

China Directory 1861 & 1863
Par lettre du 20 Avril de l'année courante, MM. Fierz et Bachmann de Shanghai annoncent que depuis quelque temps des relations d'Angleterre et de France, et notamment M. le Conseiller et Secrétaire de la
Légation C. Brennwald, ont appelé leur attention sur l'article dit " China grass „ (plante textile pouvant servir à fabriquer certaines toiles), et qu'après avoir été aux renseignements sur la production annuelle, les
lieux de provenance et les diverses qualités de cette matière première, ils sont actuellement à même de donner des renseignements à ce sujet.

Il y a quelques moi» qu'ils ont adressé par l'Overland Mail des échantillons volumineux des diverses qualités de cet article à MM. J. C. imThurn et Cie. à Londres, et vers le milieu d'Avril à cette même maison un
chargement de 30Ü balles du poids total d'environ kilo 50,000.

Les fabricants suisses qui s'intéresseraient à cet article peuvent se mettre en relation avec la maison de Londres sus-mentionnée. Elle leur donnera des indications suffisantes, prendra des ordres fermes pour les
diverses qualités et fournira sur demande les lettres de crédit nécessaires. Pour des renseignements ultérieurs, on peut s'adresser directement à Messieurs Fierz et Bachmann à Shanghai.

Berne, le 7 Juin 1864.
Le Département fédéral du Commerce et des Péages

William H. Fogg (1817-1884), China trader, and Berwick Academy's Fogg Memorial

William Hayes Fogg may have been the most successful merchant the Berwicks have ever produced. Born on a Berwick farm on December 27, 1817, just before Maine became a separate state from Massachusetts, he was named after William Allen Hayes, a South Berwick judge who lived on Academy Street. Fogg's great uncle, Judge Benjamin Chadbourne of South Berwick, had been the Berwick Academy founder who donated land for the campus in 1791.

The youngest of ten children, William Fogg never attended Berwick Academy, but at 14 went to clerk in a country store. He failed at his first business venture, but at age 30 joined his brother to create the Fogg Brothers of Boston, a shipping company in the China trade.

In 1847, just after the Opium War, the Treaty of Nanking had opened trade in five Chinese ports, principally Shanghai, and Hong Kong became a British colony. Tokugawa Japan opened with Matthew Perry's voyage in 1853. Trade in the oriental market flourished; clipper ships raced the globe with cargoes of tea, silk, and eventually “oil for the lamps of China.” And the Fogg brothers were there. Within five years of starting their business, they transferred their base to Manhattan and, after his brother's death, William began to lead, at age 38, the firm that was known first as Fogg Brothers and later as the China and Japan Trading Company.

Old Berwick Historical Society
See Security Markings Group I – 54
See Security Markings Group I – 76
Francis Maitland. – 1865.
Born1 21/5/1865 @ 18, Charlton Kings Rd, Kentish Town.
rest as for NGM.
1871 Census: 7, Wesley Terrace, Newcastle with mother and uncles and aunts.
1881 Census: with family, in London aged 15, Clerk (Tea).
1891 Census: not found.
1901: Merchant, Linstead & Davis, Hongkong.
1894-1909: appears on HK Jurors List, address Upper Richmond Rd, for Linstead Davis.
1910: real estate agent, Linstead Davis, Hongkong.
1911, November 16, SS Nyanza, London to Hong-Kong:
Mr & Mrs F Maitland + Mrs WE Maitland to Yokohama.
Died: 4/3/1922, of Victoria, Hong Kong, at Fristen Cottage, May Rd, Hong Kong, Prob London 22/7/1922, to Alice Fraser Smith Maitland £890
1918, 11 April, 1918, Empress of Asia, Hong Kong to Vancouver:
Francis Maitland, 52, Agent, Ref Mr EJ Chapman (cousin), Alba?? Building, Hong Kong.
Alice Maitland, 38, Ref Mrs AG Gordon (sister), The Peak, Hong Kong.
1921: SS Dongola (P&O) from London to ??
Francis Maitland (Land Agent, 56), Mrs Alice (41, wife), for Hong Kong, last UK res 25 Broad Walk, Buxton permanent res China.
Thos Henry Morrison (43, musician), Mrs Harriet (Wife, 47) for Hong Kong, last UK res 5 Belvedere Terrace, permanent res England.Eleanor (Poole) Maitland's album shows a Frank Maitland (as an amateur player) in Shanghai, January 1900. This could be JA Maitland's son who worked for NGM, but looks too old in the photograph. It might therefore be this Frank, but is probably Francis John, son of Septimus, who was also in Shanghai in 1901. A possible photograph of him is in EIP's album C, page 15. Quote from Poole Family History by H.A.Poole (DSM thinks this refers to Frank, son of JAM above): The second Maitland son Frank Maitland lived in Hong Kong, where he was head of the firm of
Linstead & Davis: he married 1905 Alice Stopani, a girl born in Hong Kong, part Italian: no children.
DSM: He then went to India. Alice died after 2nd war in Hong Kong.
See Security Markings Group I – 104B
See Security Markings Group I – 100
Wm Pustau. Background information on this German firm: The firm was founded by William Charles Engelbrecht von Pustau who advertised in the Friends of China newspaper that on 1 Jan 1846, he would commence trading in Hong Kong and Canton under the name of William Pustau and Company. In 1848, the company was appointed agent for the Austrian Lloyd Steam Navigation Co. The firm failed in 1878, caused by over extension into real estate. Two sons of the founder members became partners and took over some of the firm's former businesses, trading under the new name of Reuter, Brockelmann & Co.
Frank Drake
See Security Markings Group I – 116
See Security Markings Group I – 124
This firm was established in the early fifties, and was one of the first Bombay houses to open a branch in Hongkong. In India the firm does a large business in cotton, yarns, pearls, and metals, and acts as agents lor the Swadeshi Mills, the Central India Mills, the Ahmedabad Advance Mills, the Hydro- Electric Company, the Tata Iron and Steel Company, the Union Fire Insurance Company of Paris, and The South British Insurance Company. The Tata Iron and Steel Company is the biggest Swadeshi enterprise in India, having a capital of two crores and thirty lakhs of rupees, and the object of the Hydro-Electric Company is to supply electric power to some fifty mills in the city of Bombay, which are at present run by steam-driven machinery. The electric power is to be generated from a waterfall at Lanowlee, some 80 miles from Bombay. Messrs. Tata, Sons & Co.'s headquarters are at Bombay, and there are branches at Shanghai, Kobe, Osaka, New York, Rangoon, London, Paris, and Tuticorin, as well as Hongkong. The partners in the business are Messrs. D. J. Tata, K. J. T. Tata, and K. D. Tata. One resides in Bombay, another in Paris, while the third spends most of his time traveling between the various establishments. The offices in Hongkong are at No. 6, Ice House Street, and the manager here is Mr. B. D. Tata. In Hongkong the firm trades in opium, Indian and Japanese yarns, Manchester piece goods, and sundries.

Source: p 228 Wright, Arnold, : Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China: Their History. People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., 1908.
See Security Markings Group I – 13
See Security Markings Group I – 13
See Forwarding Agents: Hong Kong 29
Borneo Company Limited, formed in 1856, is one of the oldest companies based in East Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah).
The company, of 25 Mincing Lane, was registered in London in June 1856 with a capital of £60,000. Its directors were Robert Henderson (of R.& J.Henderson, Glasgow merchants), John Charles Templer (friend of James Brooke), James Dyce Nicol, John Smith, Francis Richardson, and John Harvey (the latter two of MacEwan & Co. in Singapore). Its first manager in Sarawak was a Dane, Ludvig Verner Helms, who had been trading there on his own account since 1852. Initially, the company was given rights in return for royalties to the Sarawak treasury to "take over and work Mines, Ores, Veins or Seams of all descriptions of Minerals in the Island of Borneo, and to barter or sell the produce of such workings". The commercial hub of the company was, however, in Singapore, and businesses were soon also opened in Thailand, and then Indonesia and Hong Kong.


See Security Markings Group IV – 10
Peele, Hubbell and Company (American)

The American firm of Peele, Hubbell and Company is believed to be the earliest foreign (non-Spanish and non-Asian) business house in Manila. Prior to establishing permanent residency on the Islands, the Hubbells made several visits, presumably to determine if a business
house would be economically feasible. In 1817, Captain Ezekiel Hubbell of Bridgeport, Connecticut, went to Manila aboard the Citizen, representing the fum, Hoyt and Tom and Company. He did not stay, however, butreturned to New York with a load ofsugar and indigo valued at $10,000. In 1819, he returned to Manila on the
Citizen with his son, George William Hubbell, as supercargo (officer on the ship in charge ofthe cargo). Again, both returned to the United States. These trips convinced the family that a profitable trade could be established between Manila and the United States.

by Don Peterson

See Security Markings Group I – 116
See Forwarding Agents

Nagasaki 4A

CARST Remt Jaski

Born 05.09.1837 in Nieuwendam, NL
Died 16.07.1874 in Haarlem, NL

Brother of Jan Jeppe Carst.
He came to Japan in 1861 as Partner of de Coningh, Carst & Lels, Yokohama/ Kanagawa. In 1864 the partnerships changed and
Carst, Lels & Co., Export-Import Merchants and Insurance Agency was established at Yokohama # 25. He remained in this company until 1872 when he left Japan for health reasons.

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CONINGH Cornelis Theodoor Assendelft de

Born 05.03.1821 in Arnhem, NL
Died 28.02.1890 in Haarlem, NL

At first Coningh partnered with Jeppe Pieters Carst (1802-1861) and Murk Lels (1823-1891) and opened a branch in Nagasaki. The partnership of
Coningh, Carst & Lels apparently didn't last for long. Carst and Lels continued in the next decade in Yokohama but he went his own way as Coningh & Co.
Coningh himself left Japan in 1861, settled in the Netherlands for good in 1862 and did not return to Japan; it is unclear who oversaw his business in Japan.

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Nagasaki 1864 - 1869
Yokohama 1868 - 1873

FRAZAR Everett

Born 1834 at Duxbury, Mass., USA
Died 03.01.1901 in New York

The origin of
Frazar & Co. goes back into the remote stages of trade development in China and Japan, and in the early history of the pioneer days. George Frazar, who founded the firm, started in business in Canton as far back as in 1834. He was captain of one of the clippers which used to carry raw silk and tea from China to Boston. He was among the earliest settlers in Hong Kong when that port was ceded to the British and opened for foreign trade. His son, Everett Frazar, proceeded to Shanghai in 1856 and there established a branch of Frazar & Co., engaging in a general import and export business. Everett Frazar made his first visit to Japan with Commodore Perry’s second expedition in 1858, but as at that time the future of foreign trade with Japan was a closed book, he considered the prospect too uninviting, and returned to Shanghai.
He always kept in touch with Japan, at first via Lebbeus Egerton jun. to Nagasaki. Later, his partner John Lindsley started the Japanese firm of Frazar & Co., Trade and Insurance Agents, Yokohama # 200, in 1878 and he became Manager.

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Born 03.02.1834 in Luettringhausen/ Remscheid, DE
Died 15.12.1914 in Nagasaki, Japan

He was born the son of the merchant Carl Boeddinghaus and his wife Anna Elisabeth nee Weber at Luettrinhausen.

In 1862 he came to East Asia having travelled via the Cape of Good Hope by sailing vessel. At first he worked as a clerk for H. Bourjau & Co. in Macao, in 1863 he arrived in Nagasaki and went to work for the Prussian trading firm Textor & Co. at # 11 Ōura. In 1866 he became partner with this company, all the same he made up his mind to run his own business and by January 1870 he founded, in partnership with F. Dittmer, also a clerk at Textor & Co., the new company operating under Boeddinghaus, Dittmer Co., Export and Import Merchants, at # 9 Dejima. In 1878, F. Dittmer left the company and in the following year, Carl founded Boeddinghaus & Co. and moved to nearby # 7 Dejima. He was an import and export merchant, but from then on he became agent for several well-known German insurance companies and shipping lines, including the busy Hamburg-America Line.

Meiji Portraits

See Forwarding Agent: Kobe # 1
The dominant British firm in Nagasaki in the Meiji period was Holme, Ringer & Company which was controlled by Frederick Ringer (1838-1907).   The firm remained in the hands of the Ringer family including sons-in-law until they were forced to leave or were arrested on the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941. 

Burke-Gaffney in this book "Holme, Ringer & Company, The Rise and Fall of a British Enterprise in Japan 1868-1940" tells the story of the Ringer family and their business interests in Nagasaki and Shimonoseki.

J.P. Hyver, a native of France, was in Nagasaki by at least 1864 when he operated a store
at No. 42A Oura. By 1870-71, he was renting a private residence at Nos. 28B and 28C
Minamiyamate. Later in the decade, Hyver made two brief, unsuccessful attemps to
operate the Oriental Hotel (or Hotel Oriental as it was also called), first at No. 28 Oura and
then at Nos. 7 and 8 Oura. Between these two attempts, in March 1877, Hyver was
attacked and beaten in the foreign settlement. By January 1878, the Oriental Hotel was up
for rent and Hyver had moved on after fifteen years in Nagasaki.

The People of the
Nagasaki Foreign Settlement

Born 14.01.1827 in Wetzlar, DE
Died 20.05.1888 in Dusseldorf, DE

Equipped with a boatload of different goods they traveled to Nagasaki, where they arrived in January 1859. Since Germany (Prussia) did not have a treaty with Japan yet, they placed themselves under Dutch protection.
On July 4, 1859,
L. Kniffler & Co. was officially registered as a trading company in Nagasaki, Deshima. Thus, Kniffler & Co. was the first German company in Japan, even i
1859 Establishment of the company in Nagasaki by the German merchants L. Kniffler and H. M. Gildemeister.
1861 Conclusion of trading contract between Prussia and Japan; 1868: opening of Japan to the West during Meiji Restoration; establishing of offices in Osaka, Kobe and Yokohama.
1880 Takeover of the company by Carl Illies sen. under the firm C. Illies & Co. Yokohama-Kobe-Osakaf it was still under Dutch protection.

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1859 Establishment of the company in Nagasaki by the German merchants L. Kniffler and H. M. Gildemeister.

1861 Conclusion of trading contract between Prussia and Japan; 1868: opening of Japan to the West during Meiji Restoration; establishing of offices in Osaka, Kobe and Yokohama.

1880 Takeover of the company by Carl Illies sen. under the firm C. Illies & Co. Yokohama-Kobe-Osaka

Carroll J.D.

Born 1827 in Wexford, Ireland
Died 09.12.1891 in Kobe

He emigrated to the USA and due to his permanent stay he got US-citizenship in 1853. He was a mariner and captain, eventually on the Oriental that went down in 1861. He as captain had the salvage rights and thus set up his business in Yokohama, in 1867 he established Carroll & Co., Shipchandler and General Commission Agents, Yokohama # 16, in 1877 the firm moved to # 50 and to # 43 resp. in 1886.

Meiji Portraits
See Forwarding Agent: Kanagawa # 1

Born 19.04.1841 in GB
Died 17.04.1912 in Yokohama, Japan

In 1874 he was appointed Secretary of the Yokohama Chambers of Commerce and he held this function until 1884 when he was succeeded by O. Keil.
In 1885 he started his own business as sole merchant at Yokohama # 92.
In 1887 he shifted his business to Yokohama # 28, in 1901 to # 30, operating under
G. K. Dinsdale & Co. In general he ran his trading business by himself, partly assisted by his sons Esmond and H. Dinsdale.
From about 1907 he was invalid and his son Esmond managed the firm.

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FRASER James Campbell

Born 14.03.1840 at Demerara, now Guyana
Died 23.11.1913 in Lynton, Devon, GB

He was born on his father's sugar plantation in Demerara. In 1851he attended a boarding school with brothers and other merchants' sons near Liverpool, England and in 1861he was employed as a merchant's clerk with Charles Saunders in Liverpool who was a merchant in the Brazil trade. He came to Japan in 1862 and was employed with  Ross, Barber & Co., Agents for Northern Insurance Co. (Fire and Life), Kanagawa, but he resided in Yokohama.
In 1863 he became Assistant and in 1864 partner, the firm seat of Ross, Barber & Co. changed to Yokohama # 18. In 1867 he established his own business
James C. Fraser & Co., Insurance and Trade Agency, Yokohama # 48. This firm is still listed until 1876, but James C. Fraser had already left Japan in late 1867 for GB living at Aigburth, Liverpool.

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See Forwarding Agent: Kobe # 1
GRAUERT Hermann Ludwig Friedrich Otto

7.06.1837 at Lingen bei Hannover, DE
01.11.1901 in Yokohama, Japan

Brother of Heinrich und Wilhelm Grauert..
He arrived on December 3, 1857 at Nagasaki, Deshima together with his brother Wilhelm, at first accepting British protection.
On May 12, 1858 he visited Yokohama in the Dutch advisory group of Jan Hendrick Donkher-Curtius.
Impressed by the expected development of Yokohama he decided to move to this city and he settled permanently in Yokohama on July 1, 1859; soon after he founded
Grauert & Co., Merchants and Insurance Agency. It was one of the first German companies which never attained, however, prime importance.

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Hermann Ludwig Grauert was born in Lingen, Prussia on June 17, 1837, the son of a
celebrated physician. He arrived at Dejima with his elder brother, Wilhelm Heinrich Ludwig
Clemens Grauert, on December 3, 1857. In May 1858, Hermann Grauert made a brief visit
to Yokohama with a group led by the Dutch Director of Trade at Dejima, Donker Curtius,
before returning to Nagasaki. With the opening of the foreign settlement at Yokohama on
July 1, 1859, the Grauert brothers set themselves up as merchants in Yokohama, under the
name of Grauert & Co.

Hermann Grauert's life at Yokohama was an eventful one. In November 1861, Grauert, who
was at this time Prussian consul of Yokohama, was attacked by two samurai who attempted
to kill him. Although seriously wounded, Grauert survived. Two months later, he helped
Father Girard dedicate the first Catholic Church in modern Japan. Grauert not only helped
finance the church, but he donated some of the land on which it was built. In June 1865, he
was also elected to the first Municipal Council in Yokohama.

While, initially, Grauert & Co. was a financial success, the company later came to suffer a
number of setbacks, and, as a result, Hermann's brother Wilhelm died tragically on
November 29, 1870 at the age of forty. He was buried in the Yokohama Foreign Cemetery.

Hermann Grauert lived out his years in Yokohama as a merchant, eventually marrying a
German national named Helene Haussler in the early 1890s. The couple had two children,
Mary and Hermann Clemens (who later became a well-known doctor in Yokohama), born in
1892 and 1895, respectively. Hermann Ludwig Grauert died in Yokohama on November 1,
1901 at the age of sixty-four and was buried next to his brother. 

The People of the
Nagasaki Foreign Settlement
See Forwarding Agents: Nagasaki 4A
Francis Hall was born and raised in New England and started a successful book-selling business in Elmira, New York. He married and they had a son, Chandler Prince, but shortly afterwards became a widower. In 1859 he eventually made his way to Japan to collect material for a book on the country and to serve as a correspondent for the NewYork Tribune. Seeing the opportunities for commerce in Yokohama, he became partner of John G. Walsh and helped create the trading house of Walsh, Hall & Co., living in the port cities of Yokohama and Kanagawa during the transition between the Tokugawa and Meiji periods. Walsh, Hall, & Co. became one of the most important American trading houses in Japan and later, also his son became a staff member.
As a journalist, Hall served as a foreign correspondent for the New York Tribune, which published nearly seventy of his dispatches from Japan. More importantly for posterity's sake, Hall kept a journal documenting his stay in the country from November 1859 to July 1866.
He stayed until 1866 and afterwards became an influential opinion-maker in the USA. His book “Japan through American Eyes” is an insightful and sensitive portrayal of Japan on the eve of modernity.

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Around 1865, the Swiss Karl Ziegler worked in Japan as a silk inspector.

By the financial help of his uncle Heinrich Sulzer he had the opportunity to get a partnership in a silk export trade in Yokohama, then operating under Thorel, Ziegler & Co.

On behalf of this company Arnold Dumelin came to Japan and according to the Japan Directories he immediately started his work for Thorel, Ziegler & Co. at Yokohama # 159. But already in 1868 the partners separated again and
Ziegler & Co., Yokohama # 47 and Thorel & Co., Yokohama # 50, were established.

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